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Spirit and soul and body

The Greek word pneuma means:

  • spirit or the movement of blowing air/wind. All/every spirit is NOT eternal life spirit.
    • God is Spirit. His essence and realm of power, authority, and action is spirit. God is eternal - He will not end/die.
    • The Lord Jesus Christ has received his new spiritual body from God his Father when God raised him up alive. God gave the spirit of holiness to Jesus Christ when He raised him out-from the dead-people. The spirit of holiness will not end/die.
    • Holy-people (true Christians) have received the gift of holy spirit, which is the spirit of Christ in us. Refer to the article Pentecost and the Gift of holy spirit. The gift of holy spirit will not end/die.
    • The spirit of man refers to the movement of blowing air/wind. It is the consistency and constitution of the soulish living and moving man in the man’s sphere of action, which is the soulish and fleshy realm. It excludes God’s consistency and constitution, and excludes the gift of holy spirit that is currently available to mankind from God. The spirit of soulish man will end/die.
    • Angels are spirits (spirit-beings). Refer to the article Angels. Angels can end/die.

The Greek word psuche means:

  • soul.
  • In the literal sense this word refers to the life of the physical body which is evidenced by breathing, the soul/breath life, what allows a human-being to move and work, etc, living in the physical category.
  • In the figurative sense this word refers to a person's being, including his/her character and disposition living everyday life, all that emanates from the soul such as movement, speech, etc, actions done according to and motivated by soul.
    •  All living creatures on earth (animals, fish, birds) have soul which is the life of their physical bodies (Genesis 1:20; Ecclesiastes 3:19).
    • All living people on earth (human-beings) have soul which is the life of their physical bodies (Genesis 2:7).

The Greek word soma means:

  • body.
    • All living creatures and mankind on earth have physical, fleshy bodies.
    • The Lord Jesus Christ who is the new man has his new spiritual body.

This article includes references to spirit, soul, and body as used in the Bible.

Difference between spirit and soul:

Hebrews 4:12 - psuche soul and pneuma spirit:

Hebrews 4:12:
.12for the word of God (is) living, and in-working, and more-cutting over every two-edged sword, and reaching-through continuously-until (the) distribution of soul and of spirit, both of joints and of marrows, and apt-to-judge (the) thinkings-within and mind-purposes-within of (the) heart,

Included in the description of the word of God is that it is...

  • reaching-through (passing all the way through)
  • continuously until the distribution (the apportionment)
    • of soul (soul-life, which is the life of the physical body evidenced by breathing, this includes all that emanates from the soul such as movement, speech, etc, actions done according to and motivated by soul)  
    • and of spirit (spirit-life, this includes all that emanates from the spirit, such as movement, speech, etc, actions done according to and motivated by spirit; every holy-person has received holy spirit-life inside of us).

The word of God distinguishes between spirit and soul - they are not the same.

John 3:5 and 6 - pneuma spirit:

John 3:4-6:
.4Nicodemus says towards him, "How is a man able to be born being old? He is not able to go into the womb of his mother and to be born a second-time, is he?" .5Jesus answered, "With-certainty, with-certainty I say to you, except someone may be born from water and spirit he is not able to go into the kingdom of God; .6the-thing having been born2 from the flesh is flesh, and the-thing having been born2 from the Spirit is spirit;

Nicodemus says towards Jesus...

  • "How is a man able to be born (how can a man be begotten)
    • during the time when he is old (in old age)?

  • He is not able to go (he does not have the ability to enter)
    • into the womb of his mother and to be born a second time (via a physical, natural, fleshy birth as the first time that his mother gave birth to him),

  • is he?" The Greek construction of this question indicates that Nicodemus expected a negative answer: "no, a man is not able to do such a thing." He knew that this was not the way to accomplish what Jesus told him - but what was it?

Jesus replied by further explaining to Nicodemus about going into the kingdom of God and by specifying 2 different kinds of birth with their associated kinds of life - he answered...

  • "With-certainty, with-certainty I say to you (Nicodemus),
    • except someone may be born (unless a member of mankind would be begotten)
    • from water and spirit (originating from both a physical birth and a spiritual birth)
    • he is not able to go into the kingdom of God (that person does not have the ability, the able-power, the capability to enter into God's kingdom);
  • the thing having been born and continuing born (that-which has been begotten, given birth to, brought forth)
    • originating from the flesh (referring to the physical natural body of a human-being with its soul/breath life)
      • is flesh (a human-being of the same kind, having the make-up or consistency of flesh),
  • and the thing having been born and continuing born
    • originating from the Spirit (referring to God Who is Spirit)
      • is spirit (a spirit of the same kind, having the make-up or consistency of spirit).

John 4:23 and 24 - pneuma spirit:

John 4:23 and 24:
.23but (the) hour comes and now is when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for even the Father seeks-after the people-of-this-kind worshipping Him. .24God (is) Spirit, and it is necessary (for) the (people) worshipping Him to worship in spirit and truth."

In verse 23 Jesus said to the woman at the well...

  • "the hour is in the process of coming and now the hour exists (what is necessary for the following to occur at a future time is a reality at the present time)
    • when the true worshippers (the people who pay homage having the quality and essence of trueness, their consistency is truth, not a copy or an example, but actual, real, genuine worshippers)
    • at a future time will worship the Father (they will pay homage to the Father)
    • in spirit and truth (within the sphere of action, character and attributes of spirit and truth - everything involved with/by the spirit itself and what it communicates which has the quality of truth),
      • for the Father looks for the people of this sort (such people) who are worshipping Him.
  • God is Spirit (in Greek the word "Spirit" is neuter, it is neither male nor female – God Himself has the consistency of spirit, His essence and realm of power, authority, and action is spirit; God is not flesh but He is Spirit, a Spirit-Being, He is the source of all He gives and communicates relative to His own spirit category),
    • and it is necessary for people who are worshipping Him (God)
    • to worship in spirit and truth."

I Corinthians 2:11-14 - pneuma spirit; verse 13 - pneumatikos spiritual; verse 14 - psuchikos soulish, pneuma spirit, and pneumatikos spiritually; verse 15 - pneumatikos spiritual:

I Corinthians 2:11-13:
.11For who of men knew2 the-things of the man except the spirit of the man, the (spirit) in him, thus also the-things of God not-one (person or spirit) knew2 except the Spirit of God; .12and we did not receive the spirit of the world but the spirit, the (spirit) out-from God, in order that we may have known2 the-things having been graced to us by God, .13which-things also we utter-forth, not in taught words of manly wisdom but in taught-things of spirit - judging-together spiritual-things with spiritual;

Paul asks: what man among men (all men together, mankind) knew and continues to know (perceive)...

  • the deep, hidden, secret thoughts and purposes pertaining to and belonging to the man (any specific man)
  • except the spirit of the man (if not, unless the man's spirit)
  • emphatically and specifically the spirit in him....

The spirit of mankind is the consistency and constitution of the soulish living and moving man in the man’s sphere of action, which is the soulish and fleshy realm. The body and soul man is limited to his fleshy body and his soul-life, which is evidenced by breathing. It is his soul-life that keeps his body living.

The spirit of the man excludes God’s consistency and constitution, and excludes the gift of holy spirit that is currently available to mankind from God Who is Holy Spirit.

No man among men knows the things of another man except the man himself. The man himself is the only man who knows what are his own deep thoughts, his personal feelings and desires, etc, unless that man makes them known to somebody else and then that other person can also know. But if the man does not tell anyone what he is thinking or feeling, etc - then no other man really knows what is going on deep down inside him. They could guess but guessing cannot give a deep and full and accurate answer!

For who of men knew and continues to know the things of the man except the spirit of the man, the spirit in him - in this manner also...

  • the deep, hidden, secret thoughts and purposes pertaining to and belonging to God
  • not one person or spirit (none, no-one) knew and continues to know (this Greek verb ginosko means: to have a truly active and relative knowing, to be personally knowledgeable)
  • except the Spirit of God (if not, unless God Himself, He consists of Spirit, emphasizing the truth that He is Spirit - His essence and realm of power, authority, and action)....

Only God Himself truly and personally knows what are His deep thoughts, His personal feelings and desires, etc – unless God Himself makes them known to some other spirit or person, and then that other spirit or person can also know. But if God does not tell anyone - then nobody or nothing else really knows the things deep down inside Him, and someone guessing or theorizing what these are does-not and cannot give a deep and full and accurate answer!

God personally knows what He is doing, what He is planning, etc, and God may reveal this information to others. It is only those things that God reveals and makes known which can be known outside of God. No spirit or person can force God into revealing or making-known His wisdom or knowledge, etc, nor can any spirit or person access that information without God's permission.

In verse 12 Paul continues: ...and emphatically we did not receive...

  • the spirit of, pertaining to, or proceeding from
  • the world (limited to/by the cosmos, the ordered arrangement that God created but which has fallen from its original condition - this includes the devil/satan and the spirits which take their instruction from satan)

...but on the contrary we received (we took what was given to us to use, which is)...

  • the spirit, emphatically and specifically the spirit
    • out-from God (originating and resulting from God, He is the source of the spirit including what emanates from it, its actions and communications to us),
  • for the purpose and result that we would know and continue to know (perceive)
    • the things which have already been graced to us (the things that were bestowed to us with unmerited or undeserved favor, without any merit on our part - referring to all the things involved in/with the reception of this holy spirit-life)
    • by God (under the power, hand, or agency of God),
  • the things which also we speak,
  • not in taught words of manly wisdom (not by speaking words of instruction proceeding from human wisdom, the wisdom that pertains to mankind)
  • but on the contrary - in taught things of spirit (by speaking the instructions proceeding from the gift of holy spirit within us) -
  • judging together spiritual-things with spiritual (we are making decisions by joining or combining those matters belonging to, determined by, influenced by and proceeding from spirit - in conjunction with spiritual matters; so that the judgment, the decision made is based on comparing spiritual with spiritual; we are not using instructions originating from the manly, human, flesh, physical category);
Verses 14 and 15:
.14but a soulish man does not accept the-things of the Spirit of God for they are dullness to him and he is not able to know (them) because they are spiritually judged-up, .15but the spiritual-person judges-up all-things - but he is judged-up by not-one (person or spirit),

Paul continues by teaching clearly the difference between the people who do not have holy spirit-life within them – and holy-people (Christians) who have received holy spirit-life from God by means of the Lord Jesus Christ.

A "soulish" man is referring to any man who does not have holy spirit-life because he has not believed what God has given to be believed regarding Himself and His son, the Lord Jesus Christ (refer to Romans 10:9 and 10). A soulish man only has soul/breath life in his body which keeps him alive in the flesh and physical category and it is evidenced by his breathing. His mode of operation is limited to the natural/physical realm.

A soulish man...

  • does not accept (he does not welcome, subjectively receive, willingly take to himself what is presented to him, receive with open arms)
  • the things of, pertaining to, or proceeding from the Spirit of God (from God Himself)
  • for the things that God would like to communicate to every one of mankind
  • are dullness (they are considered to be foolishness, not-acute, absurdity, moronic)
  • to/by a soulish man
  • and he is not able to know them (he does not have the able-power, the capability to personally know, to have a truly active and relative knowing of the things of the Spirit of God)
  • because God's spiritual communications are spiritually judged-up (they can only be carefully examined or investigated by means of spirit - the gift of holy spirit which a soulish man does not have),

...but the spiritual-person (referring to anyone who has received God's gift of holy spirit by means of the Lord Jesus Christ)...

  • judges-up (carefully examines or investigates)
  • all things (all the things which have been graced to us by God Who is the source of His spiritual communications, as verse 12 above) -
    • but emphatically he (the spiritual-person – he himself)
    • is judged-up (carefully examined or investigated)
    • by not-one (none, not even one!) person or spirit (regarding God's spirit category including the communications or information given by God to the holy-person via the gift of holy spirit),
  • in truth (refer to Isaiah 40:13 and 14 which is part of the old covenant writings)
  • "Who personally knew (what person or spirit at any time has a truly active and relative knowing of)
  • the mind of the Lord (referring to God’s mind-set, the Lord’s organ of mental perception, His mentality),
    • he who will compact God's mind (cause it to come or be brought together as knitting and so uniting it in reasoning, thinking, instruction, teaching, etc)
    • in conjunction with his own mind?"

The unwritten answer to this question is already provided by Paul in verse 15: no-one - because God is the source of His spiritual information, He makes His own decisions, He communicates what He intends to communicate - therefore holy-people cannot be judged-up regarding what God graces to us.

Acts 18:25 - pneuma spirit:

Acts 18:24-26:
.24But some Judean, Apollos by-name, Alexandrian by genus, a wordy adult-male, came-down into Ephesus being able in the writings. .25This-person was having been resounded2 (concerning) the way of the Lord, and boiling with spirit he uttered-forth and taught accurately the-things concerning Jesus, well-knowing only John's baptism; .26and this-person began to boldly-speak in the synagogue, but having heard him Priscilla and Aquila took him towards-themselves and they expounded the way of God more-accurately to him.

Apollos had been orally taught information concerning the manner of action of the Lord, which was what John the baptizer (the baptist) had preached during his ministry. He was "boiling with spirit" - this means that he was fervent or hot, being lively and energetic and giving it everything he could physically. This is not referring to holy spirit-life because Apollos did not have it at that time.

Apollos spoke and taught the people in Ephesus accurately (exactly, precisely) the-things about Jesus (what was written in the scriptures about Jesus and what John the baptizer had taught people). He was only aware of John's baptism, which was washing with physical water (H2O). This tells us that Apollos did not teach about baptism in holy spirit. He did not know about the day of Pentecost and how God by means of the Lord Jesus Christ shed forth holy spirit-life! 

But after Priscilla and Aquila heard him in the synagogue, they took Apollos to themselves (perhaps into their house) and they expounded the way of God (the action that God purposed and accomplished by means of Jesus) more exactly to him than what he already knew.

Jude 1:19 - psuchikos soulish and pneuma spirit:

Jude 1:17-19:
.17But you, loved-people1, must be caused-to-remember the spoken-matters, the (spoken-matters) having been said-beforehand2 by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ, .18because they used-to-say to you that on (the) last time there will be deriders journeying according to the intense-yearnings of themselves of the lacks-of-reverence; .19these are the (people) throughly-separating, soulish-people not having spirit.

Jude writes in verse 19 that the people who lack reverence towards/for God are the people throughly-separating (setting people apart/away from each other giving them limits, causing thorough divisions as limiting people within certain areas, partitioning, making complete distinctions between people who should be behaving as one united assembly)...

  • soulish-people (these people only have soul/breath life in their bodies which keeps them alive in the fleshy and physical category and is evidenced by breathing; their mode of operation is limited to the natural/physical realm which the devil uses to hurt holy-people; soulish people do not accept the things from the only true God)
  • not having spirit (these people do not have holy spirit-life within their bodies, because they have not believed what God has given to be believed regarding Himself and His son, the Lord Jesus Christ as detailed in Romans 10:9 and 10 ).

Loss or lack of spirit life:

Matthew 27:50 - pneuma spirit:

Matthew 27:50 and 51:
.50But Jesus again having shouted with a great sound left the spirit. .51And look!, the veil of the interior-temple was divided away from-the-top until below into two, and the earth was caused-to-quake, and the rocks were divided.

While Jesus was hanging on the cross when he was crucified, he cried out with a loud voice and let the holy spirit-life within him go from his concern and thereby he willingly permitted God to take it back away from him. The temporary spiritual connection that he had with God was gone. This was Jesus’ spiritual death, loss of holy spirit-life, which was followed immediately by his physical death, loss of the soul/breath life of his fleshy body described in verse 51.

John 19:30 - pneuma spirit:

John 19:28-30:
.28After this Jesus, having known that already all-things were completed2 - in order that the writing may be made-complete - says, "I thirst." .29A vessel used-to-lie full of sharp-wine, therefore they carried-towards his mouth a sponge full of sharp-wine having put (it) around a hyssop. .30Therefore when he received the sharp-wine Jesus said, "It was completed2" - and having leaned the head he gave the spirit over (to God).

When Jesus was crucified he received (took) the sharp-wine and said...

  • "It was completed and continues completed (the writing was brought to its ending issue, caused to be accomplished, in the state of completeness; referring to the truth that everything prophesied and written down as part of the old covenant writings about the Christ was fulfilled, it came to pass)" -

...and after Jesus leaned (inclined, bowed, bent) his head...

  • he gave the spirit over to God (he handed it over, delivered it alongside/beside God; he willingly permitted God to take it back away from him).

This was Jesus’ spiritual death, loss of holy spirit-life, followed immediately by his physical death, loss of the soul/breath life of his fleshy body.

Acts 7:59 - pneuma spirit:

Acts 7:59 and 60:
.59and they threw-stones-at Stephen calling-upon (the Lord Jesus) to-himself and saying, "Lord Jesus, you must accept my spirit," .60and having knelt-down he shouted with a great sound, "Lord, may you not cause this sin to stand to them," and having said this he was caused-to-sleep.

When the council members had thrown Stephen outside the city-wall, they cast stones at him while he was calling upon his Lord saying to him…

  • “Lord Jesus,
  • you must accept my spirit (welcome, receive, willingly take my holy spirit that I am presenting to you)” –

...and when he put his knees down on the ground he cried-out with a large voice (all could hear what he was saying in the midst of the commotion) asking the Lord Jesus...

  • “Lord,
  • may you not cause this sin to stand to them (Master, may it be that you do not count this sin against them).”

As soon as Stephen had made this request to the Lord Jesus, he was caused to sleep - Stephen died.

Today, when a holy-person (a true Christian) who has received holy spirit-life within him/her dies, his/her holy spirit goes back to God and the Lord Jesus Christ because that is where it came from in the first place; then that person physically dies - breathes the last breath, and the body goes back to the dust of the ground. This state of death is called “sleep” from God's and the Lord Jesus Christ's point of view because it is a temporary state and not a permanent condition for any holy-person (Christian) who dies before Christ comes to gather all the church of holy-people together with him. Also refer to the article Hope and Resurrection.

Loss or lack of soul life:

Acts 5:5 - ekpsucho to ex-soul:

Acts 5:5 and 6:
.5But Ananias hearing these words, having fallen, he ex-souled, and great fear became on all the (people) hearing, .6and the younger-men having stood-up drew him together, and having carried (him) out they buried (him).

When Ananias heard the words that Peter spoke in this situation, he fell down to the ground and then the life of his physical body ended evidenced by his breathing out his last breath (he expired, he died). What Peter had spoken to him was true - but there is no record of Ananias asking for healing or any other kind of help.

Acts 20:10 - psuche soul:

Acts 20:9-12:
.9But (there was) some young-man, Eutychus by-name, sitting-down on the window being carried-down by a deep sleep (during) Paul's throughly-speaking on more (time); having been carried-down from the sleep he fell below from the third-floor and he was lifted dead. .10But Paul having descended fell-upon him and having embraced (him) he said, "You must not be-tumultuous for his soul is in him."
.11And having ascended and having broken the bread and having tasted, and having talked-in-company on a sufficient-amount continuously-until light, thus he went-out; .12and they led the child living, and they were encouraged not measurably.

Paul and those with him had assembled-together with the other brothers (holy-people, Christians) to break bread. It was the day before Paul was due to depart from them, and he extending his teaching of the Word of God up-until midnight.

However, some young man (youth) named Eutychus was sitting down on the window-ledge and he was sinking down into a deep sleep while Paul continued further speaking. But after he was overcome by sleep he fell downwards out of the window, which was on the third floor of the house, and he died as a result of the fall!

But Paul came down to where the dead young-man was and…

  • fell-upon him (he purposefully lay down)
    • to embrace his body (to put his arms around him).

Paul was walking in accordance with the information his holy spirit-life was giving to him. Paul was obeying the Word of God which was being revealed to him at that very moment regarding what to do about this situation with this young man.

Then he said to the believers who had come together with him that they must not be tumultuous (making an uproar, causing a scene among themselves) because the young-man's soul (breath life) is within him – he's alive now, not dead! Paul had healed Eutychus from being dead to being alive in the physical category.

Paul went up again to the meeting-room.

  • After he had broken the bread in pieces for distribution among the rest of the assembly,
  • and after he and everyone else had tasted (shared of the food and drink experiencing the effects),
  • and after he had talked with them as companions enjoying each other's company sufficiently (enough)
  • for the duration of time until the dawn light of daybreak –
    • it was in this manner that he departed from them.

They brought the child (referring to the young-man as a child since he was a servant by occupation), who was now living again, with them to see Paul off as he went on his journey; and they were encouraged beyond measure.

I Corinthians 14:7 - apsucha without-soul:

I Corinthians 14:7 and 8:
.7Even-yet the-things without-soul giving sound, whether a pipe or a lyre, if-ever it may not give distinction with the tones, how will the-thing being played-on-the-pipe or the-thing being played-on-the-lyre be known? .8For also if-ever a trumpet may give an unclear sound, who will prepare-himself for war?

In this record Paul is giving an example and writes that even in the case of things that do not have soul-life (without breath, lacking physical life, the lifeless or inanimate things)…

  • when they are giving their sound,
    • whether a pipe (an instrument which is blown such as a pipe or a flute)
    • or a lyre (an instrument which is stringed such as a lyre, harp, guitar, lute),
  • if it should happen at any time that it would not give distinction with the tones (precise sounds according to the specific line or notation indicated on the music sheet),
    • how will it be personally known by anyone hearing its sound what is the meaning or purpose of
      • what is being played on the pipe (blown on the pipe or flute, flouted)
      • or what is being played on the lyre (the strings of a lyre, harp, guitar, or lute)?

Acts 27:22 and 37 - psuche soul:

Acts 27:22-26:
.22and the-things now – I advise you to be well-minded for there will be not-one throwing-away of soul from you, besides of the ship, .23for an angel of God, Whose I am and to Whom I render-service, stood-beside me this night .24saying, 'You must not be fearful, Paul, it is necessary (for) you to stand-beside Caesar; and look!, God has graced2 to you all the (people) sailing with you.' .25On-this-account you must be well-minded, adult-males, for I believe God that thus it will be according to which manner it was uttered-forth2 to me, .26but it is necessary (for) us to fall into some island."

While Paul was on board a ship, there was a bad storm and he spoke to the other people - part of which was:

  • regarding the things that are happening at the present time – I advise you (I recommend, admonish you publicly)
  • to be well-minded (cheerful)
  • for there will be not-one throwing-away of soul from you (none of you will have your breath life cast away from you, nobody will die),
    • besides of the ship (except, other-than that the ship will be wrecked).

Further on in verse 37 we read:

Verse 37:
.37and all the souls in the ship were two-hundred seventy six.

There were 276 people on board. All of these people were not holy-people (Christians) but all of them were alive in the physical, flesh category - they had soul/breath life and did not lose it during this bad storm.

Soul and body:

Matthew 6:25 - psuche soul and soma body:

Matthew 6:25:
.25Because-of-this I say to you, you must not be anxious-about your soul what you may eat, neither your body what you may clothe-yourselves-with. The soul is more-than the nourishment and the body (more-than) the clothing, isn't it? - (yes.)

Jesus said: you must not be anxious-about (not be mentally distracted with care concerning)...

  • your soul (the physical life of your physical body which is evidenced by breathing)
    • what you may eat (to keep you physically alive),
  • neither your body
    • what you may clothe yourselves with (what you would put-on your physical body, as going inside of a garment, what you would envelop your body with).
  • The soul (physical breath life)
    • is comparatively more (bigger) than the nourishment (the sustenance from food you eat to maintain physical life),
  • and the body
    • is more than the clothing (what you put on or envelop the body with to cover it to maintain the physical body),
  • isn't it? Yes. The Greek sentence structure indicates that the expected answer of this rhetorical question is: yes.

If a person did not have a soul and a body then all the nourishment and clothes in the world would be useless because nourishment and clothes do not make or form a soul and a body.

I Peter 2:24 - soma body; verse 25 - psuche soul:

I Peter 2:24 and 25:
.24who himself offered-up our sins in his body on the wooden-stake in order that (after our) having become-away from the sins we may live to the righteousness; by whose wound you were healed, .25for you used-to-be as sheep being caused-to-wander but now you were turned-back on the shepherd and overseer of your souls.

Jesus Christ offered-up our sins (he bore upwards making a presentation of/for the sins that we committed) in his body on the wooden-stake (the dead tree post when he was crucified)…

  • for the purpose and result that
  • following our having become away (removed) from the sins
  • we may live to the righteousness (we would be alive to the justness, justice, the attributes of justification, the quality of being and doing what is just/right from God's point of view);

…by whose wound you were healed. It was with/by Christ’s welt, the total effect on his body which included his death, that you were caused to recover from illness.

He was killed so that holy-people would live, as during the old covenant when there was one lamb killed and one remained alive representing God’s people – we are now alive spiritually and we can behave in a righteous manner (this is a reference to Isaiah 53:5b)…

  • in truth, you used-to-be (during a past time, which was before you believed what God says regarding the Lord Jesus Christ and you received the gift of holy spirit, you were continuing to be)
    • as sheep being caused-to-wander (in comparison to sheep being caused to err, not-staying in their rightful place, being led astray from their correct location [this is a reference to Isaiah 53:6])
  • but contrary to that, now you were turned-back on (at the present time you have already been turned back upon)
    • the shepherd (the one who takes care of and protects his people, he exercises the whole office of a shepherd which involves not only feeding with the Word of God, but also leading and guiding and guarding, etc, as a shepherd takes care of his flock of sheep)
    • and overseer (watcher, the one who scopes, the one who has been given the duty or function of having watchful-care and guardianship)
      • of your souls (pertaining to the life of your bodies currently evidenced by breathing, and figuratively referring to your beings, including your character and disposition as you are living your lives).

Spirit and soul and body:

Acts 2:4 - pneuma spirit:

Acts 2:1-4:
2:1And in the fulfillment (of) the day of Pentecost they were all together on the same-place, .2and there became suddenly out-from heaven a sound wholly-as (the) carrying of a violent blowing and it filled the whole house where they were sitting-down, .3and tongues being throughly-distributed were seen by them as-though of fire and it sat-down on each one of them, .4and they were all filled of holy spirit, and they began to utter-forth with different tongues according as the spirit gave to them (the words) to precisely-speak-out.

In verse 4 we read that the men were all caused to be filled of (filled up with) holy spirit. This holy (sanctified) spirit is the spirit that God had promised by means of the Lord Jesus Christ! They already had soul/breath life within their physical bodies which made them living beings in the flesh category, but now they had just received holy spirit life which made them living in the spirit category. This is what they were waiting for as Christ Jesus had instructed them just before his ascension into heaven.

The apostles began to utter-forth with different tongues (different languages other-than their own known languages) according as the spirit, which they had just received, was giving them the words to speak-out. They spoke what their spirit was continuing to give them to speak.

Acts 2:33 and 38 - pneuma spirit; verse 41 - psuche soul:

Acts 2:32-36:
.32this Jesus God resurrected of whom we all are witnesses, .33therefore having been heightened to the right-side of God and having received the promise of the spirit, the holy (spirit), from the Father, he poured-out this which you observe and hear,

In this record Peter is speaking regarding the Lord Jesus Christ:

  • “This is the Jesus whom God resurrected of whom emphatically we all are witnesses.
  • Therefore after he had been heightened to God’s right-side (exalted, lifted high, elevated to God’s right-hand side, His place of honor, authority, power, blessing, grace, approval, and excellence)
  • and having received
    • the promise of the spirit,
    • emphatically and specifically the holy spirit,
    • from the Father,
  • the resurrected Jesus poured-out (shed forth)
  • this which you observe and hear….”

All of those present in the temple saw and heard the twelve uttering-forth with tongues. The twelve had spoken by way of the holy spirit-life which was now within them because they had been baptized in holy spirit! This is what God had promised and this is what the Lord Jesus Christ had promised and told them to wait for in Jerusalem not many days from the day of his ascension into heaven.

Continuing on to verses 38 and 39:

Verses 38 and 39:
.38And Peter (said) towards them, "You must repent and each of you must be baptized on the name of Jesus Christ into (the) dismissal of your sins and you will receive the free-gift of the holy spirit, .39for the promise is to you and to your children and to all the (people) into distant-places as-many-as ever (the) Lord our God may call-towards-Himself,"

When the people heard what Peter was telling them, they asked what they should do in this situation. Peter replied in response to their asking for help:

  • "You must repent (change your minds to what I am telling you)
  • and each one of you must be baptized (immersed, surrounded) resting-upon or based-on the name of Jesus Christ (which includes all the authority and power which that name involves and stands for now because he is the resurrected 'Lord')
  • with a view to and resulting in the dismissal (discharge, acquittal)
    • of your sins
  • and you will receive the free-gift of the holy spirit (you will take to yourselves the present which is given to you from God by means of the Lord Jesus Christ which is holy spirit-life)."
Verses 40 and 41:
.40and with more different words he throughly-witnessed and he encouraged them saying, "You must be saved away-from this generation of crookedness," .41therefore the (people) indeed having accepted his word were baptized, and as-though three-thousand souls were added in that day;

Verse 41 says that about 3,000 souls were added, by the Lord, among those having received holy spirit-life within them during that day of Pentecost. Now all of these people had become three-part-beings:

  • they had a physical body,
  • they had soul/breath-life evidenced by the fact that they were still breathing,
  • and they had just received holy spirit-life, which was the life they had been missing before their reception of it.

I Thessalonians 5:23 - pneuma spirit and psuche soul and soma body:

I Thessalonians 5:23:
.23But may the God of the peace Himself make wholly-completive you holy, and may your whole-lot - the spirit and the soul and the body - be blamelessly kept in the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Paul writes making known his prayerful desire to God regarding the Thessalonian holy-people:

  • May the God of the peace Himself make wholly-completive you (cause you who are entirely complete to be)
    • holy (sanctified, cause you to be set-apart from the state of being common, defiled or unclean against God in the walk/behavior category during the everyday living of your lives now);
  • and may your whole-lot (the wholeness or entirety belonging to you of the inheritance),
  • which is presently consisting of three parts:
    • the spirit (holy spirit-life – first mentioned here because it is the most important part from God's viewpoint, just as spirit was written about first in Genesis chapters 1 and 2 when God first created, made and formed mankind)
    • and the soul (the life of your physical body which is evidenced by breathing)
    • and the body (your physical and fleshy body),
  • be blamelessly kept (an eye kept on it, in safekeeping in a manner without blame, no fault to be found because of any incompleteness on your part)
    • regarding the walk (behavior) category
    • from now to the time of the presence (the arrival or coming to be present)
      • of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Romans 8:9, 10, and 11 - pneuma spirit:

Romans 8:9-11:
.9But you are not in flesh but in spirit since-indeed (the) spirit of God dwells in you; but if someone does not have (the) spirit of Christ, this person is not His; .10but since Christ (dwells) in you, the body indeed (is) dead because-of sin but the spirit (is) life because-of righteousness; .11and since the spirit of the (One) having raised-up Jesus out-from dead-people dwells in you, the (One) having raised-up Christ out-from dead-people will make-alive also your mortal bodies by means of His spirit indwelling in you.

Paul writes to the holy-people that emphatically you are…

  • not in flesh (not within the sphere of action, character and attributes of flesh)
  • but on the contrary, you are in spirit (within the sphere of action, character and attributes of spirit)
    • since it is a fact emphatically that the spirit of/from God dwells in you (the spirit belonging-to and proceeding-from God inhabits or houses within you; the phrase “spirit of God” emphasizes that God is the originator of this spirit).

But if someone does not have the spirit of Christ (the phrase “spirit of Christ” emphasizes that the spirit that God gave is the spirit of Christ, the same spirit as the resurrected Christ, the Anointed-one, the Messiah)…

  • this person is not His (anyone who does not have holy spirit-life does not belong to God and therefore also does not belong to Christ; this person is not a member of God’s family).

But since/if Christ dwells within you…

  • indeed, on the one hand, the physical fleshy body is dead (lifeless, it has no life in itself)
  • but, on the other hand, the spirit is life (it is life itself – God's life in Christ's life is in you)
    • on account of righteousness (justness, justice, the attributes of justification);

…and since/if…

  • the spirit of the One (God)
    • Who has raised Jesus up alive out from being among the rest of the dead-people
    • dwells in you (inhabits you)
  • the One (God) Who has raised Christ (the Anointed-One) up out-from dead-people
    • will make-alive also your mortal bodies (will give life also to your current physical fleshy bodies that are liable to death)
    • by means of His spirit indwelling in you (inhabiting, housing within you holy-people).

Romans 8:14 and 15 - pneuma spirit:

Romans 14 and 15:
.14for as-many-as are led by (the) spirit of God these-people are sons of God; .15for you did not receive a spirit of slavery again into fear, but you received a spirit of sonship – in which we shout, "Abba, Father";

The people who are being conveyed by/with the spirit from God (referring to holy-people, Christians)…

  • these people are sons of God (God’s sons; the word ‘son’ emphasizes origin, quality, and essence);

…for you did not receive a spirit of slavery again into fear (a spirit pertaining to bondage, servitude directed back to fright, being afraid), but on the contrary…

  • you received (you holy-people have already taken from God Who gave to you for you to use)
    • a spirit of sonship (a spirit pertaining to being put or placed as sons of God, a sonship spirit) –

…in which we shout (within the sphere of action of this spirit of sonship all of us cry out towards God)…

  • "Abba, Father" (the word Abba is an Aramaic or Hebrew word meaning "Father", it was considered the language of the Scriptures because the old covenant was written in Hebrew; the reverential Abba is written plus the Greek which was the language Paul spoke and wrote to the Christians in Rome; we shout with reverence, not fear of death, to God within the holy spirit-life we have: "Abba, Father" – and it does not matter what language a person speaks in the flesh category; the only true God is Father of the holy spirit-life which He placed in us; God is our Father in the spirit category, not the flesh realm).

Galatians 4:6 - pneuma spirit:

Galatians 4:6 and 7:
.6but (since it is true) that you are sons (it is true that) God apostled-out His spirit into our hearts shouting, "Abba, Father" – .7so-that you are no-longer a slave but a son, but since (you are) a son (you are) also an inheritor by means of God.

Paul writes to the Galatian holy-people that since it is true that you are sons of God…

  • then it is also true that God has already apostled-out His spirit (He sent His gift of holy spirit forth out-from Himself by means of the Lord Jesus Christ on a specific mission or assignment)
    • into our hearts (from the outside into the inside of the center of our beings, all of us holy-people),
  • and this holy spirit-life is shouting (crying-out),
    • "Abba, Father."

The word Abba is an Aramaic word meaning "Father." All holy-people (true Christians) have the spirit of Christ in us and therefore God is our Father in the spirit category.

The result or consequence of all of you now being sons of God having received holy spirit which shouts, "Abba, Father" towards God, is that…

  • each one of you is no-longer (not anymore)
  • in the position of being a slave under the rudiments of the world,
  • but on the contrary, your position is one of
    • a son of God.

And, since you (each one of you individually) are a son...

  • you are also an inheritor (an heir, one who has the inheritance, assigned-lot, allotted-portion)
  • by means of God Who is your Father spiritually.

II Timothy 1:7 - pneuma spirit:

II Timothy 1:7:
.7for God did not give to us a spirit of cowardice but of ability and love1 and sound-thinking,

God did not give holy-people a spirit of cowardice (a cowardly spirit, of timidity, in awe and fearful regarding different circumstances or situations) – but on the contrary...

  • God gave to us a spirit of:
    • ability (able-power, capability)
    • and love1 (God’s love, His kind of love)
    • and sound-thinking (thoughts that are sound, safe in God's viewpoint, with prudence, thoughts in alignment with salvation).

Philippians 1:27 - pneuma spirit and psuche soul:

Philippians 1:27:
.27only, you must live-being-citizens worthily of the good-message of Christ in order that whether having come and having seen you or being absent I hear the-things concerning you that you stand-firm in one spirit, one soul, contending-together with the belief of the good-message,

Paul writes: it is imperative that you live in the duty of being citizens (in accordance with your citizenship, behave in accordance with the governing authority and enjoy the privileges which you have been given) worthily of the good-message of Christ (in a manner of equal-value with the gospel/evangel pertaining to Christ).

All holy-people’s citizenship spiritually is in the heavens, within God’s kingdom for the purpose and result that...

  • whether at the time when I will have come and seen (perceived) you,
  • or whether at the time when I am physically being absent (away) from you,
  • I would hear the things about you, which therefore would be that you stand-firm (stand fast as opposed to falling in the walk/behavior category)
  • within the sphere of action of
    • one spirit (the one gift of holy spirit that you all have received, your holy spirit-life – this is in the spirit category),
    • one soul (one soul/breath life, the life of your physical bodies which is evidenced by your breathing, and figuratively referring to your beings, including your character and disposition as you are living your lives – this is in the flesh, natural category, your physical living),

…contending-together (all of you rendering mutual help being athletes together for the same goal, for mastery of the same event as in public games, side-by-side on the same team with the same finish-line being aimed at and you all receive the prize)...

  • with/by/in the belief of the good-message (that-which is given to be believed, the faith or trust belonging-to and pertaining-to the gospel).

Body:

I Corinthians 6:18, 19 and 20 - soma body; verse 19 - pneuma spirit:

I Corinthians 6:18-20:
.18You must flee fornication; every sin which if-ever a man may do is outside-of the body, but the (person) fornicating sins into (his) own body. .19Or, you knew2 that your body is (the) interior-temple of the holy spirit in you which you have from God, and you are not of yourselves, don’t you? – (yes).20for you were bought of price; indeed you must glorify God in your body.

In verse 19 Paul asks:

  • you knew and you still know (perceive, see), don’t you,
  • that your body (singular – altogether as one unit)
  • is the interior-temple of, belonging-to and containing the holy spirit within you (refer to I Corinthians 3:16 and 17)
  • which (holy spirit) you have from God
  • and you are not belonging to yourselves (there is no place for "doing it my way" or "doing what the committee says" if it is against what God says!)?
    • – yes (the Greek construction of this question must receive an affirmative answer: "yes, that is correct; we know this") –
  • in truth, you were bought of price (you were purchased, as a person buys in a market-place and pays the correct honorable price, the holding-worth, the estimated value of/for the item concerned; refer also to I Corinthians 7:23);
  • indeed you must glorify God (absolutely it is imperative that all of you holy-people give God the importance, splendor, and renown)
    • within the sphere of action of your body (everything that you do with your body during the everyday living of your lives must be to God's glory).

Romans 12:1 - soma body:

Romans 12:1:
12:1Therefore I encourage you, brothers, by means of the pities of God, to present your bodies (as) a living sacrifice, holy, well-pleasing to God (which is) your logical rendering-of-service,

In this verse Paul encourages (exhorts) the brothers (holy-people) regarding their walk (behavior, conduct)...

  • by means of the pities of God (through God's tender feeling of unhappiness or distress on seeing the ills being experienced by any of us; the word “pities” is in the plural form to give emphasis to God's great pity towards His children),

…to present your bodies (to cause your bodies to stand beside, near-by God) as…

  • a living sacrifice (presently and actively alive, not dead or about to be killed, but as one united sacrifice in service, now living because you have received the same spirit within you as Christ received when God raised him up alive from death accepting his sacrifice of himself),
  • holy (sanctified, separated, set-apart from the state of being common, defiled or unclean against God, corresponding to the essence of God),
  • well-pleasing (goodly agreeable, acceptable and gratifying)
  • to/for/with God

...which is your logical rendering-of-service (your performance of service to/for God that pertains to reason, the correct calculation of service).

II Corinthians 5:10 - soma body:

II Corinthians 5:10:
.10for it is necessary (for) us all to be manifested in-front-of the judgment-seat of Christ in order that each-person may bring-to-himself (his) own-things of the body towards the-things-which he practiced, whether good or bad.

Paul writes that it is necessary (it is binding, it ought to be, it must occur) for all holy-people...

  • to be manifested in front of (evidenced, brought to light, shown-forth face to face with, in full view before)
    • the judgment-seat of Christ (the Anointed-one, the Messiah; this will occur after Christ has gathered us together with him away from the earth)….

The word translated as "judgment-seat" literally means a step or a raised-platform reached by steps. It is an area where someone, such as a judge, would speak-from to the assembly of people present. In this context it refers to Christ's judgment-seat, his tribune, his judicial-bench. He will do the judging, the decision-making regarding those in front of him, in accordance with God's will because God has given all judgment to His son.

This tribunal will not be to determine whether the holy-person is righteous before God or not, because that has already been determined (all holy-people are righteous) – but the Lord Jesus Christ will address the assembly in front of him…

  • for the purpose and result that each-person (each holy-person, Christian)
  • would bring to himself (receive/take and carry to/with himself, acquire so as to preserve and take-care of what Christ will give to him as compensation or reward from that time onwards)
  • his own-things of the body (the things pertaining to the man himself)
  • towards the-things-which he practiced (with a purposed reference to the things which he habitually, repeatedly did and was in the process of accomplishing during his lifetime in his fleshy body since he became a holy-person, a Christian),
    • whether good (good from God’s viewpoint; God is the One Who issues His goodness and He sets the standard of/for what is good to be conformed to by others)
    • or bad (that-which does not issue from God).

Each holy-person brings to himself at that future time what is deemed by Christ to correspond to those things which that holy-person was accomplishing during his everyday living of life, from the moment of receiving the gift of holy spirit to the moment when Christ gathers us together - whether good or whether bad from Christ’s point of view which also is God’s point of view.

Philippians 3:21 - soma body:

Philippians 3:20 and 21:
.20for our citizenship is-from-the-beginning in (the) heavens out-from where also we eagerly-await (the) savior (who is the) Lord Jesus Christ .21who will change-the-outward-figure (of) the body of our humiliation (to be) formed-together with the body of his glory according to the in-working (for) him to be able and to subject all-things to him.

All holy-people's citizenship originates and continues to be in the heavens, and it is out-from heaven that also we eagerly await the savior who is the Lord Jesus Christ…

  • who will at a still-future time
  • change the outward figure of the body (he will alter the external-figure, outward-shape of the physical body)
  • of our humiliation (this body is and emanates our humbling, our state of lowliness, of low degree, it is what makes us to be in the lowly position relative-to what we will have in the future)
  • and it will be a body adjectively described as
    • formed-together with (jointly-formed, co-formed; its whole make-up, not only the external appearance, will be fashioned or share the form in conjunction with)
    • the body of his glory (the body of the glory of the Lord Jesus Christ; this body is and emanates his state of glory, importance, splendor, and renown, he is in his glorious position because God raised him out-from among the dead-people giving him his new spiritual body and God placed him at His right side).

All of us holy-people presently have the spirit of Christ in us, the hope of glory (refer to Colossians 1:27). We have the promise that at a future time, as Paul explains: the Lord Jesus Christ will change-the-outward-figure of the body of our humiliation to be formed-together with the body of his glory…

  • in accordance with the in-working (the active energy, the powerfully active work being done within by God)
    • purposing to give him the able-power (to enable him, to make him capable)
  • and to subject all-things to him (cause all-things to be in submission, to be arranged in the position of being underneath the Lord Jesus Christ, excluding God his Father, of course).

God is the One Who subjects everything under the Lord Jesus Christ so that in the future Christ will subject everything including himself to the only true God.

New spiritual body:

Romans 1:4 - pneuma spirit:

Romans 1:3 and 4:
.3concerning His son – the (son) having come-into-being out-from (the) seed of David according to (the) flesh, .4the (son) having been marked-out-definitely (as being) God's son in ability according to (the) spirit of holiness out-from (the) resurrection of dead-people – Jesus Christ our Lord,

God’s good-message is about His son who is Jesus Christ our Lord. Jesus is the Lord (Master) of all holy-people (Christians). In these two verses we have a short summary to let us know exactly who God's son is by name and title (position, qualification).

In verse 4 Paul wrote that Jesus Christ was marked-out definitely that he is the son of God within the sphere of action of ability (able-power, capability)…

  • in accordance (conformity, proportion) to/with the spirit of holiness
  • out-from resurrection of dead-people (originating from the standing-up of dead-people).

Jesus Christ was definitely marked out as THE SON OF GOD in ability - how? - by the spirit of (consisting of) holiness. God gave the spirit of holiness to Jesus Christ when He raised him out-from the dead-people and therefore the spirit of holiness (sanctity) is the spiritual essence of the resurrected Christ Jesus.

I Peter 3:18 - pneuma spirit:

I Peter 3:18:
.18because also Christ once suffered concerning sins, a righteous-person on behalf of unrighteous-people, in order that he may lead you towards God having been put-to-death indeed in flesh but having been made-alive in spirit,

Christ once suffered concerning sins (at one time the Messiah, the Anointed-one experienced, was affected by things with respect to people’s sins against God, actions of missing the mark of what God said, swerving from God’s Word to mankind)…

  • a righteous-person (one who is just, in a right/just state, justified, who is living his life in a right manner, being and doing what is just/right from God’s viewpoint)
  • on behalf of unrighteous-people (people who are not righteous),

…for the purpose and result that he would lead you towards God (bring you to God giving you access to Him)…

  • having been put-to-death indeed in flesh (this righteous one was caused to die in his physical natural body with its soul/breath life, the flesh category)
  • but having been made-alive in spirit (he was given life in the spiritual body with its holy spirit life that he received when God raised him up alive from being dead).

I Corinthians 15:44 - psuchikos soulish, soma body, and pneumatikos spiritual; verse 45 - psuche soul and pneuma spirit; verse 46 - pneumatikos spiritual and psuchikos soulish:

I Corinthians 15:42-46:
.42thus also the resurrection of the dead-people: it is sown in corruption – it is raised-up in incorruption; .43it is sown in dishonor – it is raised-up in glory; it is sown in weakness – it is raised-up in ability; .44it is sown a soulish body – it is raised-up a spiritual body. Since there is a soulish body, there is also a spiritual (body), .45thus also it was written2, "the first man, Adam, became into a soul living," the last (man became) into a spirit making-alive, .46but the spiritual (body is) not first but the soulish (body is first), next the spiritual (body).

Paul continues to answer the questions: "How are the dead-people being raised-up? And with what kind of body do they come?" In verse 44 he writes:

  • it is caused to be sown a soulish body (the life of this body is soul; it is the soul that keeps a person alive in the fleshy and physical category and it is evidenced by breathing; its mode of operation is limited to the natural/physical realm),
  • but it is caused to be raised-up a spiritual body (the life of this body is spirit; it is the spirit that keeps a resurrected person alive).

If/since it is a fact that there is a soulish body – there is a spiritual body. In this manner also it was written and continues written (as part of the old covenant writings)…

  • the first man (the first human), who was named Adam,
    • became into a soul living (he came to pass to be a soul that is being alive, he resulted in being a living soul as evidenced by his breathing, which was the totality of the life of his body; refer to Genesis 2:7; this does not include reference to conditional and temporary holy spirit life)
  • but the last man (the last human, referring to the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ)
    • became into a spirit making alive (he came to pass to be a spirit that is making life, he resulted in being a life-producing spirit, not only being spiritually alive but producing this spiritual life; the resurrected Lord Jesus Christ is not a spirit-being as the angels are, but he has his new body, the life of which is holy spirit, which is the totality of the life of his body - permanently).

The Lord Jesus Christ was born with a physical fleshy body which had soul-life in it so that he could live and breathe in the physical realm – the same as Adam. Also, during his life God gave him holy spirit upon the same condition by-which He gave spirit to Adam, and that was to believe and do what God said. Jesus Christ chose to always do those things which pleased God, his Father.

When Jesus was put-to-death by crucifixion (when he died) and was buried, he stayed dead for three days and three nights – then God graciously raised him up from among the rest of the dead-people and gave him a new spiritual body. This is when Christ became a spirit making-alive, the second and last man from the viewpoint that he is the new kind of man that God has created.

Christ now has his new body with its life-making spirit, and so he cannot be put-to-death by anyone or anything, plus he has the ability to cause others to be made alive as he is at a future time.

Paul continues in verse 46:

  • but emphatically the spiritual body is not first (it does not come into existence prior to the soulish body of a human-being)
  • but emphatically the soulish body is first (the body which has soul/breath life in it exists first time-wise),
    • after that (secondly, next sequentially) the spiritual body comes into existence at the time of resurrection.

Jesus Christ, being a descendant of Adam, first lived with his fleshy/physical body with soul-life whereby he could live, but he was killed – however, God raised him up out-from the rest of the dead-people and Christ received his new body with spirit-life whereby he is now alive.

Also reference the following articles: